The phrase indicates his vulnerability, but he uses it in an ironic sense to demonstrate how his vulnerability leads to his vindication, as the suffering of the elect in Daniel 7 changes in meaning to become their justification, vindication and elevation. Jesus' use of the term, 'Son of man' in this context suggests that he contrasts himself to 'the sinners'.
In Mark Jesus warns that those who are ashamed of him and his words will find that the Son of man is ashamed of them when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels, alluding to Daniel ; and with Jesus assuming the identity of the One who all peoples, nations, and languages serve, allusions that comes from Daniel 7 Leim Verheyden shows the tension in these verses, namely between the purpose of the passage, which is apparently to announce the salvation of the elect Mk within the context of quotations from the Hebrew Bible , and mentions that one way to think about the tension is to give full emphasis to the result of the parousia as described in Mark , as inspired by the theophany of YHWH as described in the Day-of-YHWH traditions.
Here it is interpreted essentially as a salvific action, while Mark 's images are interpreted as metaphors. The question is the following: Of what are these verses metaphors? Are it of the Parousia as a day of judgement led by the Son of man, or as the theophany of the Son of man in which salvation for the elect is realised Verheyden ? Mark b contains a reading of Isaiah a that does not go back to the LXX. The combination of the two passages from Isaiah and the agreements with Joel suggest that Mark is the result of a freely formulated conflation of texts from the Hebrew Bible, and the result of the conflation is a quite different text Verheyden where the representations of the theophany of YHWH and the Day of YHWH have influenced each other, and they have several motifs and images in common.
The coming of the Son of man is mentioned without any recourse to the description of a judgement, although it is expressed in terms of cosmic signs. The appearances of YHWH in the Hebrew Bible are located on earth, often on a mountain, and accompanied by a relatively natural event, usually a storm cf. Mk and its discussion above. In Mark 13 the Parousia is expressed in universalistic terms, which is particularly appropriate in the context of an apocalyptic discourse describing the theophany of the Son of man as an eschatological event Verheyden The entire universe will collapse Mk , but that is not important in itself.
Helsinki: Exegetische Gesellschaft, We 've to create within 30 forces. Sommaire - Document suivant. The term fantasy is understood to be referring to an extraordinary or supernatural event. As a matter of fact, Q people are credited with preaching the message of the kingdom of God and performing wonders Q Jesus applies the term to himself as a representative of humankind in general.
It is the framework for the one thing that is important, which is the coming of the Son of man Mk , portrayed in conformity with Daniel Schweizer ; Vermes Mark is a part of Jesus' teaching about the coming destruction of the temple Mk , with its accompanying false prophets, persecution, wars, earthquakes, famines, and the desolating sacrilege set up where it ought not to be Mk before the Son of man will come back with cosmic and catastrophic phenomena accompanying it Mk Zehnder interprets these characteristics of the Son of man as arguments for a divine status of the Danielic and Markan Son of man.
The idea is created that the end that is ushered in with the coming of the Son of man will be an earth-shattering event Witherington Daniel sketches one like a son of man as a human representative empowered by God to overthrow all human powers and reveal God's glory by establishing God's reign Kleiber In Mark , however, the Son of man is not primarily interpreted as a ruler but rather as a saviour who sends out his angels to collect his elect from the suffering in this world Marcus Brandenburger In the recent past Du Toit suggested that scholars have reached a consensus that the last possibility is probable, namely that the referent is a person.
In the context of Mark 13 it is made clear, however, that it refers to Jesus. The significance of the second coming of the Son of man is underlined by the hyperbolic use of language. Witherington refers to Cyril of Jerusalem's opinion in his Catechetical lectures Psalm celebrates YHWH as the One who rides upon the clouds, a title taken over from the Canaanite storm god Ba'al who was known as the 'cloud rider' Payne By coming in the clouds, the Son of man is the One who belongs to the heavenly sphere Beasley-Murray ; Gnilka The clouds will at the same time conceal and reveal his glory Moloney The Son of man will descend from the heavenly regions symbolised by the clouds Mt ; ; Mk ; ; Lk He will send his angels to collect the elect from the whole earth, with the four winds taken as the four points of the compass.
It is important to notice that this intervention is conceived by the evangelist as oriented to the salvation of the faithful rather than the judgement of sinners Collins That God's people are scattered is affirmed by Zechariah , and that God will gather the dispersed is promised in Deuteronomy ; cf. Is , 16; ; ; ; ; Ezk ; Mi ; Zch Schweizer argues from the fact that Mark uses the Greek translation of Zechariah , that the expectation of the coming of the Son of man that was important to the Early Church as a goal to which all of the signs were directed, would have been possible only in the Greek-speaking Christian church; the Hebrew text speaks of a scattering of Israel to the four winds, the exact reverse of the Greek translation's rendering.
The phrase, 'from the end of the earth to the end of heaven', combines elements in a rather illogical blending Schweizer from Deuteronomy ; Collins translates it as 'from one end of the earth to one end of the sky'. In , 31 earth is contrasted to and linked with heaven, where the ends of the earth and the ends of heaven define the universe and the universe, consisting of both earth and heaven, will pass away Malbon In Jewish thought around the turn of the eras, heaven and earth were considered separate realms and communication across their unseen boundaries was not expected as possible.
Long ago the qol YHWH had spoken directly to the prophets on earth, but now the way between heaven and earth is blocked and the prophet yearns that God would rend heavens and come down Is Mark 13 offers neither an expectation of a universal resurrection, nor judgement of all people, both good and evil , nor the anticipation of the horror of the end upon all the inhabitants of the world cf. Rv , nor of an Antichrist however, cf. Da , In contrast to Jewish apocalypses, this passage contains no description of the punishment or annihilation of enemies contra 2 Th Great importance is rather placed upon the fulfilment of promises found in the Hebrew Bible, which are quoted almost word for word Schweizer However, it is clear from Mark's use of Bible texts that he views the text not as a self-contained entity but a dynamic and open whole Van der Merwe This passage contains no reference to God's military action against foreign rulers as he acts in deliverance of his elect, as is the case in the Hebrew Scriptures' description of the day of YHWH cf.
Ezk ; Dn ; Jl Mark's prophecy focuses solely on the gathering of the elect, with no allusion to judgement against Rome Liew The gathering of the elect represents the fulfilment of the hope of reunion of Israel's scattered tribes referred to in passages such as Isaiah ; and , in the light of Zechariah and Deuteronomy , and perhaps Isaiah Beasley-Murray With his coming on the clouds, it is also not the Son of man who gathers the elect, but the angels that he sends out.
In terms of the Hebrew Scriptures, the elect can be understood to be the dispersed in the restoration diaspora of Israel, a standard prophetic image cf. The quotation is from Daniel 7 and Psalm As in Daniel 7, the Son of man comes with the clouds of heaven, and as in Psalm , the Son of man sits at the right hand of God. The images of the Son of man condemned to death and the Son of man coming with the clouds of heaven is contrasted to one another and serves to illustrate Jesus' vulnerability and elevatedness.
By way of conclusion, the connection between Ezekiel's 'son of man', Daniel's usage of the term, 'one like a son of man', and Mark's 'Son of man' should be recognised while the use of the phrase in 1 Enoch and 4 Ezra may be ignored. Mark utilises the term in a non-titular way to refer to the 'Son of man' in three ways, namely to Jesus' earthly activity, to his passion, and to his second coming. The first group of texts applies the title to Jesus when he claims to forgive sins and exercise authority over the Sabbath; the second group refers to Jesus' suffering, death, and resurrection; and the eschatological group refers to the end of time to judge.
Jesus purposefully contrasts his seeming humanity with what cannot be perceived by others except when his authority to heal and apply Sabbath regulations, are kept in mind. And his suffering that underlines his humanity and vulnerability stands in contrast to his vindication through the resurrection. In an allusion to Daniel , the Markan Jesus assumes the identity of the One who is given dominion and glory and kingship that all peoples, nations and languages should serve him. Mark and Daniel share the same context, that is of suffering and vindication, allowing the modern reader to link the Markan 'Son of man' with the Danielic 'one like a son of man'.
Jesus applies the term to himself as a representative of humankind in general.
It is also a mode of idiolectical self-reference as used in the three announcements of Jesus' suffering and death. And the Son of man also appears as more of an accuser than a judge, with angels in attendance.
Compared with the figure in Daniel 7, the Son of man in Mark is depicted as an eschatological judge or deliverer. The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article. Allison, D. Beasley-Murray, G. Bock, D.
Boussett, W. Steely, Abingdon, Nashville. Brandenburger, E. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien, Bultmann, R.
Casey, M. Collins, A.
Collins, J. The apocalyptic imagination: An introduction to Jewish apocalyptic literature , Eerdmans, Grand Rapids. The Biblical Resource Series. Boccaccini ed. De Boer, P. Oudtestamentische Studien, Dequeker, L. DeYoung, J. Elwell ed. Donahue, J. Sacra Pagina. Du Toit, D. Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament, Ginsberg, H. Evangelish-Katholischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament 1. Hardin, L. Barry et al. Hartman, L.
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